Hyperpigmentation. Uneven skin tone and how Vitis V Face TonIQ neutralises the biochemical pathway by three modes of action.

Hyperpigmentation. Uneven skin tone and how Vitis V Face TonIQ neutralises the biochemical pathway by three modes of action.

Hyperpigmentation. Uneven skin tone and how Vitis V Face TonIQ neutralises the biochemical pathway by three modes of action.

Vitis V Face TonIQ exerts antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory properties. All three biochemical modes of action reduce and suppress the occurrence of hyperpigmentation.

Pigmentation vs Hyperpigmentation.

Pigmentation is the colour of your skin. Skin pigmentation is directly involved in UV protection. Eumelanin (brown-black form of melanin) is a UV-absorbent, antioxidant and free radical scavenger.

Hyperpigmentation is darker areas within your pigmentation and causes uneven skin tone. Three common categories of hyperpigmentation are; Melasma, a hormonal response that is exacerbated by oxidative stress. Sunspots, freckles, dark spots resulting from UV exposure and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation brought on from atopic dermatitis (eczema), acne, friction or injury to the skin.

Melanin is the term used to describe a group of related molecules responsible for both skin pigmentation and hyperpigmentation. Melanin is a cluster of natural pigments produced by specific cells called melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. Within melanocytes, melanin is synthesised through melanogenesis in specialised melanosomes and then transferred to keratinocytes.

Keratinocytes are continuously produced in the epidermal basal layer. Some remain as stem cells others are destined for differentiation and move upward through the epidermis to form the stratum corneum or skin barrier where the cells eventually shed in a process called desquamation to be replaced by cells beneath in a continuous cycle. Full turnover of the stratum corneum takes 28-42 days and slows further with age.

Pigmentation of the skin results from the accumulation of melanin-containing melanosomes in the basal layer of the epidermis. Differences in skin pigmentation result both from the relative ratio of eumelanin (brown–black) to pheomelanin (yellow–red), as well as the number of melanosomes within melanocytes.

In hyperpigmentation patches of skin are darker than the normal surrounding skin, resulting from the upregulated activity of melanin synthesis, increased numbers of melanocytes, and reduced melanosomes decomposition. Tyrosinase also called polyphenol oxidase is a multifunctional copper containing enzyme (all enzymes are proteins except for ribozymes and catalysts that speed up biological reactions) that plays a critical and rate limiting role in the browning of fruit and melanin biosynthesis in humans. Tyrosinase in humans is only produced in melanocytes. Without tyrosinase there cannot be melanogenesis and therefore the production of melanin. If you inhibit tyrosinase you down regulate the production of melanin. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds strongly inhibit the activity of tyrosinase.

Initiation of hyperpigmentation includes excessive sun exposure (do not get burnt) cosmetics, injury and inflammation. Anything that causes oxidative stress or inflammation is a trigger for hyperpigmentation.

Oxidative stress is an imbalance of free radicals (molecules with one or more unpaired electrons) and available antioxidants. Antioxidants are molecules that give up an electron without becoming a free radical and in doing so stops the cascading oxidation reactions that can initiate the production of melanin and resulting hyperpigmentation.

Oxidative stress can induce inflammation. Inflammation is the body's repair response to an injury, allergy, toxin or infection. Part of the initial defense and repair system is the production of free radicals leading to localised exaggerated oxidative stress. Sunburn initiates an inflammatory response that can result in hyperpigmentation (sunspots) as does acne and atopic dermatitis (post inflammatory).

Oxidative stress and inflammation are closely related, one of which can be induced by the other and therefore to combat hyperpigmentation you need to neutralise both oxidative stress and inflammation response. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds are both super antioxidants and powerful anti-inflammatory.

Antioxidants exist in a concentration gradient in the epidermis with lower concentrations in the stratum corneum (assumably because the antioxidants are being depleted by quenching free radicals) and higher concentrations in the basal level (assumably protected by the actions of the antioxidants at the skins surface). The epidermis antioxidant capacity is greater than the dermis and the two main actions of defense that antioxidants provide is preventing the formation of free radicals and neutralising radicals already generated.

Topical application of Vitis V Face TonIQ supplies proanthocyanidins, boosting the skin's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory repair systems. It inhibits tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for melanin production. This combined with multiple sources of antioxidants, such as unsaturated Vitamin E, y-tocotrienol directly counters oxidative stress and inflammation, key contributors to hyperpigmentation and uneven skin tone.

Uneven skin tone is more indicative of ageing than wrinkles. Vitis V Face TonIQ's efficacy in reducing hyperpigmentation and promoting evenness is substantiated by visual observations and consistently in written reviews.

Vitis V Face TonIQ is your essential daily dose of luxury, addressing hyperpigmentation through a multi-modal approach. Its unique blend combats the generation and suppression of biochemical pathways, making it a vital component in achieving radiant and even skin tone and feeling your finest.

It does this with plant only naturally occurring ingredients and science first approach. Your skin is a nature designed system it needs nature designed skincare.

Image credit: Valeria Smirnova Unsplash

* NOTE: you should always consult with a healthcare professional if you are concerned about the changes in your skin pigment.

Biochemistry, Melanin



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