A Grape and a Olive were found in the bathroom. Olive Oil should ONLY ever be found in the kitchen.

A Grape and a Olive were found in the bathroom. Olive Oil should ONLY ever be found in the kitchen.

A Grape and a Olive were found in the bathroom. Olive Oil should ONLY ever be found in the kitchen.

All plant oils consist of fatty acids that predominately exist as triglycerides, where a glycerol molecule is attached to three fatty acids. The physical and nutritional properties of the plant oil are determined by its fatty acid profile. Fatty acids are categorized into saturated (no double bonds), monounsaturated (one double bond), or polyunsaturated (many double bonds) based on the number of double bonds they contain. The position of the final double bond in the chemical structure determines the omega number, which is only designated to unsaturated fatty acids (those with double bonds). The term "omega" comes from the Greek word meaning "the end." Common fatty acids and corresponding omega number.

Omega 3 - Linolenic acid, Omega 5 - Punicic acid, Omega 6 - Linoleic acid, Omega 7 - Palmitoleic acid, Omega 9 - Oleic acid

Poljšak and Kočevar Glavač 2022

The C plus number denotes how many Carbon atoms in the chain and the 1, 2 or 3 denotes how many double bonds.

Two common fatty acids are Oleic and Linoleic, each having a different chemical structure. These differences lead to either detrimental or positive effects on the skin when topically applied. Oleic fatty acid, known as Omega-9, is a monounsaturated fatty acid, and it is the main fatty acid of Olive oil. Unlike Linoleic fatty acid, Oleic fatty acid is not considered essential because the body can make it. While Oleic fatty acid offers multiple health benefits when ingested, excessive topical application can harm the skin in several ways, including:

Impaired Barrier Function: The skin's barrier function is crucial for retaining moisture and protecting against external irritants. High levels of Oleic acid can compromise this function, leading to increased trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and decreased hydration of the skin. This can result in dryness, roughness, and a weakened skin barrier. Oleic acid increases the skin barrier permeability allowing entry for allergens, irritants (including preservatives and fragrance from skincare products) as well as pollution and microbes further promoting skin barrier breakdown and inflammation.

Increased Acne Formation: Oleic acid has been found to change the composition of sebum a lipid-based substance secreted by the sebaceous glands in the skin. Sebum is necessary to lubricate our skin and makes our skin impervious to water. Excess sebum can clog pores and contribute to the formation of acne lesions, including whiteheads and blackheads. More Oleic fatty acid to Linoleic acid causes the sebum to feel greasy and oily.

Inflammation: Studies suggest that Oleic acid can promote inflammation in the skin. Inflammatory processes can lead to redness, irritation, and skin conditions such as dermatitis. Oleic acid causes barrier disruption and eventually induces dermatitis under continuous topical application.

Linoleic fatty acid, is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, Omega-6 that cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained from external sources. Linoleic acid is the predominate polyunsaturated fatty acid in the epidermis and has an indispensable and multiple roles in skin function.

Skin Repair and Regeneration: Linoleic acid is involved in the synthesis of ceramides, which are critical components of the skin's barrier function. It promotes the repair and regeneration of the skin, improving its overall health and resilience and is a structural component of skin cell membranes.

Skin Hydration: Linoleic acid plays a critical role in maintaining the skin's moisture barrier. There is an age-related decline in skin-barrier function and resultant loss of water accumulation in the skin barrier ultimately leading to loss of hydration within the skin. Aged skin has decreased levels of skin barrier lipids of which Linoleic fatty acid is essential, Natural Moisturising Factors, and water content. Linoleic acid helps to improve skin hydration, reduce TEWL, and enhance the overall smoothness and suppleness of the skin.

Anti-Inflammatory Properties: Linoleic acid possesses anti-inflammatory properties that can help soothe skin conditions like acne, eczema, and psoriasis. It can reduce redness, itching, and inflammation associated with these conditions.

Acne Prevention: Linoleic acid has been found to have a balancing effect on sebum production. It helps to regulate the production of sebum, preventing excess oiliness and reducing the occurrence of acne breakouts, it also has antibacterial activity. Acne prone skin has an unbalance of Oleic fatty acid to Linoleic fatty acid. Sebum also transports fat soluble antioxidants (Vitamin E) in and on the skin and exhibits a natural light protective activity.

In summary, Oleic fatty acid can have detrimental effects on the skin, including impaired barrier function, increased acne formation, inflammation and skin sensitisation by increasing the permeability of the skin barrier. On the other hand, Linoleic fatty acid offers beneficial effects and is essential in skin barrier maintenance and skin repair. It has anti-inflammatory properties and balances sebum production and composition for acne prevention. It is important to maintain a balanced ratio of fatty acids in the skin to support its optimal function and health. Linoleic acid replaces the natural loss of lipids in aging skin.

The Linoleic/Oleic Fatty acid profile of;

Grapeseed oil                                    Olive oil

Linoleic acid 66-75%                         Oleic acid 55-83%

Oleic acid 14-20%                             Linoleic acid 2.5-21%

It is important to note that all plant oils are a combination of fatty acids no plant oil is a singular fatty acid. The fatty acid profile of the plant oil determines the susceptibility to heat, light or oxygen induced oxidation and why all Oleic and Linoleic fatty acid predominate oils should be stored in dark coloured glass in cool conditions. The method of oil processing and refinement also affects the fatty acid percentages an important consideration for selecting oil for skin care. Cold pressing is the only method of extraction that retains the entire entourage of phytonutrients and polyphenols as it uses no heat or chemicals, thereby preserving beneficial lipids and eliminating irritating byproducts from solvent extraction methods. Environmental conditions of where the source plant material is grown also influences the fatty acid profile and other phytonutrients such as phytosterols, phenols, squalene, carotenoids and vitamin E. These phytonutrients also influence how the plant oil interacts with the skin and why Vitis V Face TonIQ uses only cold pressed Australian unfermented grapeseed.

In the context of skin activity, the composition of vegetable butters and oils is intrinsically linked to the composition of skin lipids and phytonutrients.

Linoleic fatty acid predominate skincare such as Vitis V Face TonIQ should be found in the bathroom. Oleic fatty acid predominate oils should ONLY be found in the kitchen. Both should be cold pressed, stored in dark coloured glass away from light and high temperatures.

Other high Oleic acid oils used in skincare apart from Olive oil are, Avocado, Macadamia, Apricot kernel, Almond, Marula fruit, Carrot seed, Buriti fruit and Plum kernel.

Canola, Sunflower, Safflower and Soybean have been bred to produce high Oleic fatty acid variants so be wary of this when selecting skincare. I cannot find any reference to having to declare on the label if a high Oleic acid variant has been used. Given that the higher the Oleic fatty acid content the longer the shelf life I suspect that many cosmetic products are using the high Oleic fatty acid varieties. This is particularly deceptive when the natural ratio of Linoleic to Oleic fatty acid has been reversed as in the case of Safflower or Sunflower oils.

Plant butters that are high in Oleic fatty acid include Shea and Mango butters

We need to start thinking of plant oils and the fatty acid profile as actives not simply as carrier oils. Unique characteristic differences exist between oils and their effect have been demonstrated in clinical studies with their application to the skin. Skincare with a higher Linoleic acid to Oleic acid ratio are better at skin-barrier repair, whereas skincare with higher levels of irritating Oleic fatty acid may be detrimental to skin-barrier function. Linoleic acid has an essential and direct role in the skin barrier.

Your skin barrier requires hydration and this can be achieved by via constituents such as glycerol, and secondly preventing trans epidermal water loss via constituents that occlude (seal) the skin. The fact that triglycerides found in plant oils are fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule and our skin contains the enzymes to be able to separate the glycerol from the fatty acids creating free fatty acid means we can achieve skin barrier maintenance and repair with two modes of action from the application of Linoleic acid predominate plant oils

Grapeseed oil is not only predominately Linoleic fatty acid it also contains powerful antioxidants including proanthocyanidins and tocotrienol (unsaturated Vitamin E).

Vitis V Face TonIQ is a blend of cold pressed unfermented grapeseed oil and white grapeseed extract. Providing essential Linoleic acid for ceramide synthesis to strengthen the integrity of the skin barrier function and overall skin wellness, boosting natural skin antioxidant reserves and a source of glycerol for skin hydration.

Vitis V Face TonIQ is your essential daily dose of nature's luxury. Your skin needs Linoleic fatty acid to function and for you to achieve your most nourished and radiant skin

Natures perfect active for your skin.

Please note sensitive skin is often the result of damaged or compromised skin barrier. Check your skincare products if they are predominately Oleic fatty acid based this could be the reason.

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